Most interpretations up until now believe it to be an 8th century Christian object, a reliquary or portable altar. 5:1-4, 22). May 6, 2014 - Explore mitchell griggs's board "Anne frank family photos" on Pinterest. Howlett interprets the warrior at left as Boe, and “one infers that the mound is depicted twice and that the stallion mourning in the centre of the panel is identical with the figure seated at the left end, where he retains his horse’s head and hooves.”, Ute Schwab (2008), following Heiner Eichner (1991), interprets the left and central scenes on the right panel as relating to the Welsh legend of Rhiannon. It also appears on the lid, where according to Becker, Valhalla is depicted. The Franks Casket, named after its donator to the British Museum, A.W. , The inscription refers specifically to the scene on the left end of the casket's right side. ), M. Osborn, "The Grammar of the Inscription on the Franks Casket, right Side,", P. W. Souers, "The Top of the Franks Casket,", P. W. Souers, "The Franks Casket: Left Side,", P. W. Souers, "The Magi on the Franks Casket,", P. W. Souers, "The Wayland Scene on the Franks Casket,", K. Spiess, "Das angelsächsische Runenkästchen (die Seite mit der Hos-Inschrift)," in, A. Wolf, "Franks Casket in literarhistorischer Sicht,", This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 23:37. The scene is a reference to the apocryphon Decensus ad Inferos, a popular medieval text translated into Anglo-Saxon. According to Simmons, the 'idol' (herh) is Satan in the form of an ass, being tortured by a personified Hell in helmet. Josef Strzygowski (quoted by Viëtor 1904) proposed instead that the lid represents a scene pertaining to the fall of Troy, but did not elaborate. herhos(?) On the right are three figures.  The post-medieval history of the casket before the mid-19th century was unknown until relatively recently, when investigations by W. H. J. Weale revealed that the casket had belonged to the church of Saint-Julien, Brioude in Haute Loire (upper Loire region), France; it is possible that it was looted during the French Revolution. Neuman de Vegvar, Carol L. "The Travelling Twins: Romulus and Remus in Anglo-Saxon England." At left an animal figure sits on a small rounded mound, confronted by an armed and helmeted warrior. Austin Simmons (2010) parses the frame inscription into the following segments: This he translates, "The idol sits far off on the dire hill, suffers abasement in sorrow and heart-rage as the den of pain had ordained for it." Imprisoned by King Nithhad, Weland exacts a terrible revenge, murdering the king's two sons and raping his daughter. Date. “The woman to the right of the mound is Hel, Saxo’s Proserpina, prophesying Balder’s death and condemning Woden to sorrow and humiliation. According to the Mabinogion, a medieval collection of ancient Welsh stories, Rhiannon was falsely accused of murdering and eating her infant son Pryderi, who, according to Schwab, is represented by the swaddled infant in the central scene. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. Generally reckoned to be of Northumbrian origin, it is of unique importance for the insight it gives into early Anglo-Saxon artand culture. The casket resembles some fourth- to fifth-century ivory boxes such as that from Brescia, northern Italy. (1990). Bellows, Oxford Univ. Quick Facts Name Frank Lucas Birth Date September 9, 1930 Death Date May 30, 2019 Place of Birth La Grange, North Carolina Place of Death Cedar Grove, New Jersey It is now incomplete; the lid lacks its framing inscription, and the right side-panel, separated from it in the early nineteenth century, is in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence. (both quoted, in that order). In the upper right quadrant, the Jewish population flee, casting glances backwards. Franks, first became known to the public around 1850 when it popped up in a middle class house in Auzon, France, thence its other name “Auzon Runic Casket”. A.C. Bouman (1965) and Simonne d'Ardenne (1966) instead interpret the mournful stallion (Old English hengist) at the centre of the right panel as representing Hengist, who, with his brother Horsa, first led the Old Saxons, Angles, and Jutes into Britain, and eventually became the first Anglo-Saxon king in England, according to both Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Bouman suggests that the female mourner could then be Hengist's famous daughter Renwein. — Thorny Problem of the Franks Casket Reveals Another Riddle, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Franks_Casket&oldid=989259883, Medieval European objects in the British Museum, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ᚠᛁᛋᚳ.ᚠᛚᚩᛞᚢ.ᚪᚻᚩᚠᚩᚾᚠᛖᚱᚷ | ᛖᚾᛒᛖᚱᛁᚷ | ᚹᚪᚱᚦᚷᚪ:ᛋᚱᛁᚳᚷᚱᚩᚱᚾᚦᚫᚱᚻᛖᚩᚾᚷᚱᛖᚢᛏᚷᛁᛋᚹᚩᛗ | ᚻᚱᚩᚾᚫᛋᛒᚪᚾ, fisc.flodu.ahofonferg | enberig | warþga:sricgrornþærheongreutgiswom | hronæsban, The flood cast up the fish on the mountain-cliff, ᚱᚩᛗᚹᚪᛚᚢᛋᚪᚾᛞᚱᛖᚢᛗᚹᚪᛚᚢᛋᛏᚹᛟᚷᛖᚾ | ᚷᛁᛒᚱᚩᚦᚫᚱ | ᚪᚠᛟᛞᛞᚫᚻᛁᚫᚹᚣᛚᛁᚠᛁᚾᚱᚩᛗᚫᚳᚫᛋᛏᚱᛁ: | ᚩᚦᚳᚫᚢᚾᚾᛖᚷ, romwalusandreumwalus twœgen | gibroðær | afœddæhiæ wylifinromæcæstri: | oþlæunneg. Linguistically, the segment os- represents the verbal prefix oþ- assimilated to the following sibilant, while in the b-verse of the second line er "before" is an independent word before a three-member verbal compound, tae-gi-sgraf. The Adoration of the Magi on the front panel is set alongside the Germanic tale of the exiled Weland. Howlett identifies the three figures at the right with the three wood maidens (who may be the three Norns), and the shrouded man within the central mound with Balder. Romulus and Remus, two brothers, a she-wolf nourished them in Rome, far from their native land. The first considerable publication, by George Stephens, Vandersall summarises the previous scholarship as at 1972 in setting the casket into an art-historical, rather than linguistic context. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. Press, 1926, as cited by Clark (1930, p. 339). 1, pp. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Runic Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whalebone chest from the eighth century, now in the British Museum.The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. ", Osborn (1991a, 1991b) concurs that the rune counts of 72 are intentional. The same wolf, or another, stands above, and there are two men with spears approaching from each side. On the front it marks the third of the Magi, who brings myrrh. Frank Sinatra's cock was so big he had to have special underwear made to hold it.  She suggests that because of the similarity of the story of Romulus and Remus to that of Hengist and Horsa, the brothers who were said to have founded England, "the legend of a pair of outcast or traveller brothers who led a people and contributed to the formation of a kingdom was probably not unfamiliar in the 8th-century Anglo-Saxon milieu of the Franks Casket and could stand as a reference to destined rulership. ", This is a glossary of the Old English words on the casket, excluding personal names. 26, No. It may have been intended to hold a book, perhaps a psalter, and intended to be presented to a "secular, probably royal, recipient", The front panel, which originally had a lock fitted, depicts elements from the Germanic legend of Wayland the Smith in the left-hand scene, and the Adoration of the Magi on the right. 1-19. The human figures, at least, form a composition very comparable to those in other depictions of the period. A goose-like bird by the feet of the leading magus may represent the Holy Spirit, usually shown as a dove, or an angel. Related Interest . See more ideas about casket, post mortem photography, post mortem. According to Peeters, the three figures at the right may then represent Belshazzar’s wife and concubines, "conducting blasphemous rites of irreverence (Dan. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. The labels on the two lower corners read "dom" (which means judgment) and "gisl" (meaning hostage). Wayland (also spelled Weyland, Welund or Vølund) stands at the extreme left in the forge where he is held as a slave by King Niðhad, who has had his hamstrings cut to hobble him. Both identifying the images and interpreting the ru…  There are other inscriptions, "tituli" identifying some figures that are not detailed below and appear within the image field. Without the support of these the casket fell apart. What used to be seen as an eccentric, almost random, assemblage of pagan Germanic and Christian stories is now understood as a sophisticated programme perfectly in accord with the Church's concept of universal history". The horse may be Sleipnir, Woden's famous stallion.". Excited and imaginative scholars have put forward numbers of suggestions but none convinces. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. J. Huston McCulloch As of July 18, 2019, I have taken down the text of this page on the Franks Casket, in anticipation of submitting a major revision with a similar title to an academic journal. Simmons separates the other scenes on the right side and interprets them as depictions of the Nativity and the Passion.. “In this box our warrior hoarded his treasure, golden rings and bands and bracelets, jewellery he had received from his lord, … which he passed to his own retainers… This is feohgift, a gift not only for the keep of this or that follower, but also to honour him in front of his comrade-in-arms in the hall.” The Romulus and Remus inscription alliterates on the R-rune ᚱ rad (journey or ride), evoking both how far from home the twins had journeyed and the owner's call to arms. The miniature person inside the burial mound he grieves over would then be Horsa, who died at the battle of Ægelesthrep in 455 A.D. and was buried in a flint tumulus at Horsted near Aylesford. ", Although the Sigurd-Grani thesis remains the most widely accepted interpretation of the right panel, Arthur Napier remarked already in 1901, "I remain entirely unconvinced by the reasons [Wadstein] puts forward, and believe that the true explanation of the picture has still to be found.". In the lower right quadrant, the slaves/hostages are led away, with the text, in the bottom right corner of the panel, reading 'ᚷᛁᛋᛚ' (if normalised to Late West Saxon: 'gīsl'): 'hostages'. The stallion to the left of the mound is Balder’s father Woden.” In Saxo's story, Woden then begets a second son, Boe (Bous or Váli), to avenge Balder's death. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale’s bone chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. In 1866, Sophus Bugge "followed up his explanation of the Weland picture on the front of the casket with the suggestion that the bowman on the top piece is Egil, Weland's brother, and thinks that the 'carving tells a story about him of which we know nothing. Vandersall, Amy L., "Homeric Myth in Early Medieval England: The Lid of the Franks Casket". Franks Casket. Don't believe me? Northern History: Vol. , Leslie Webster regards the casket as probably originating in a monastic context, where the maker "clearly possessed great learning and ingenuity, to construct an object which is so visually and intellectually complex. " Several of these theories are outlined below. Howlett (1997: 283) concurs with Becker and Osborn that "The carver counted his characters. Definitions are selected from those in Clark Hall's dictionary. Napier (p. 364) reports that Dr. Söderberg of Lund had anticipated Wadstein's proposal already in the. The mounts in precious metal that were undoubtedly originally present are missing, and it is "likely" that it was originally painted in colour. Shrines & Places, Saints, Relics, and Devotion in Medieval Europe. A she-wolf nurtured them in Rome city, far from their native land); right: wudu (wood), risci (rushes) and bita (biter); her hos sitiÞ on harmberga, agl. Leslie Webster has suggested that there may have been relief panels in silver making up the missing areas. A panel from the Franks casket in the British Museum with Egil defending his home with a bow. -- Wetman 20:54, 28 January 2007 (UTC) well, yes, but there is no context. ", Usually her hos sitæþ is read, "here sits the horse". The casket's carved scenes draw on Roman, Jewish, Christian, and Germanic traditions and are accompanied by commentaries mainly in the runic alphabet (futhorc), in Old English and (briefly) Latin. Franks Casket right panel original on display in Bargello Museum.jpg 2,272 × 1,704; 1.12 MB Franks Casket right panel.jpg 1,600 × 1,200; 322 KB Franks Casket … However, Wilhelm Krause (1959) instead separates herh (temple) and os (divinity). In the centre a standing animal, usually seen as a horse, faces a figure, holding a stick or sword, who stands over something defined by a curved line. Alfred Becker (1973, 2002), following Krause, interprets herh as a sacred grove, the site where in pagan days the Æsir were worshipped, and os as a goddess or valkyrie. This lidded Anglo-Saxon casket is made of whale bone; it is carved on the sides and top in relief with scenes from Roman, Jewish, Christian and Germanic traditions. See also Henderson (1971, p. 157). As nominative singular, it would indicate that the archer is Achilles, while as dative singular it could mean either that the citadel belongs to Achilles, or that the arrow that is about to be shot is meant for Achilles. The lid of the casket is lifted during the funeral of Frank Lucas at St. Luke African Methodist Episcopal Church on June 11, 2019 in Newark City. Jan 13, 2019 - Explore Carol A Davis's board "Open casket pictures of celebrities" on Pinterest. British Museum Collections Database webpage, accessed Jan. 26, 2013; Webster (2012), p. 92. The British Museum webpage and Leslie Webster concur, the former stating that "The lid appears to depict an episode relating to the Germanic hero Egil and has the single label 'aegili' = 'Egil'.". A monastic origin is generally accepted for the casket, which was perhaps made for presentation to an important secular figure, and Wilfrid's foundation at Ripon has been specifically suggested. Richard Fletcher considered this contrast of scenes, from left to right, as intended to indicate the positive and benign effects of conversion to Christianity.. The Newport Tower C-14 Date. 4 and 5: The wild creature at the left represents Nebuchadnezzar after he “was driven away from people and given the mind of an animal; he lived with the wild asses and ate grass like cattle.” The figure facing him is then the “watchful one” who decreed Nebuchadnezzar's fate in a dream (4.13-31), and the quadruped in the centre represents one of the wild asses with whom he lived. This concise, beautifully illustrated guide explores the enigmatic Franks Casket, carved from whalebone in 8th century northern England, and decorated with scenes from tales both pagan and Christian, as well as runic inscriptions. , The casket is 22.9 cm long, 19 cm wide and 10.9 cm high – 9 × 7 1⁄2 by 5 1⁄8 inches, and can be dated from the language of its inscriptions and other features to the first half of the 8th century AD. Welcome to In Focus. The inscription is partly in Old English and partly in Latin, and part of the Latin portion is written in Latin letters (indicated below in upper case letters), with the remainder transcribed phonetically into runic letters. Horsa (whose name means horse in Old English) would then be the "Hos" referred to in the panel's inscription as sitting on a "sorrow-mound." For date see note to lead. 10-18. drigiþ | swa hiri ertae gisgraf særden sorgæ | and sefa tornæ, This word is a mystery, but often emended to, trouble, distress, oppression, misery, grief, doom, judgment, ordeal, sentence; court, tribunal, assembly, experience, suffer, endure, sustain, tolerate, mass of water, flood, wave; flow (of tide as opposed to ebb), tide, flux, current, stream, on, upon, on to, up to, among; in, into, within, bodily pain, sickness; wound, sore, raw place; suffering, sorrow, affliction, sorrow, pain, grief, trouble, care, distress, anxiety, so as, consequently, just as, so far as, in such wise, in this or that way, thus, so that, provided that, anger, indignation; grief, misery, suffering, pain, d'Ardenne, Simonne R.T.O., "Does the right side of the Franks Casket represent the burial of Sigurd? In 1291, the lord of Mercoeur "made homage and swore loyalty to St. Julian, to the chapter and church of Brioude, and to the aforesaid dean, hand on the holy Gospels, and devoutly kissing a box of ivory filled with relics, as is the barons' custom." The terror-king became sad where he swam on the shingle. The warrior to the left would then be Sigurd again, now restored to his former prime for the afterlife, and "sent rejoicing on his way to Odainsaker, the realms of bliss for deserving mortals. sitæþ on hærmberge | agl? The gateway to these glittering fields is guarded by a winged dragon who feeds on the imperishable flora that characterised the place, and the bodyless cock crows lustily as a kind of eerie genius loci identifying the spot as Hel's wall. See more ideas about anne frank, anne, franks. Behind him appears to sit a woman in a house; possibly this may be Egil's spouse Ölrún. They note that there is a miniature horse in each corner of the panel, in keeping with its theme of two famous "horses. Ch. Franks Casket. Schneider himself interprets the scene on the lid as representing the massacre of Andromache's brothers by Achilles at Thebes in a story from the Iliad, with Achilles as the archer and Andromache's mother held captive in the room behind him. The Pforzen buckle inscription, dating to about the same period as the casket, also makes reference to the couple Egil and Olrun (Áigil andi Áilrun). The Franks Casket thus remains one of the oldest and greatest outstanding puzzles in Anglo-Saxon studies, indeed of medieval studies, and as it lies at the intersection of history, linguistics, poetry and art, there are many who should like to see it "deciphered." Date Created: 700/750. Date: early 8th century 2010-01-25. Note the arrows stuck in the shield. Napier (1901: 379 n.2). The Franks Casket, an Anglo-Saxon ivory box (early 7th century AD) shows Romulus and Remus in an unusual setting, two wolves instead of one, a grove instead of one tree or a cave, four kneeling warriors instead of one or two gesticulating shepherds. Webster 2012b / The Franks Casket Bagnoli, Klein, Mann & Robinson 2011 / Treasures of Heaven: Saints, Relics and Devotion in Medieval Europe (59) Webster & Backhouse 1991 / The Making of England: Anglo-Saxon art and culture, AD 600-900 (70) Around the panel runs the following alliterating inscription, which does not relate to the scenes but is a riddle on the material of the casket itself as whale bone, and specifically from a stranded whale: Wearþ gāsric(?) There is an object thought to be from the mid-thirteenth century that may be a bow, but this, as well as the date, are uncertain. Weland is not an obvious parallel for Christ but both share the fate of exiles fleeing a tyrannical king and illustrate models of good (Christ) and bad (Nithhad) kingship. Thomas A. Bredehoft, 'Three New Cryptic Runes on the Franks Casket'. Culture: English "to sit beside the horse-block outside the gates of the court for seven years, offering to carry visitors up to the palace on her back, like a beast of burden.... Rhiannon's horse-imagery and her bounty have led scholars to equate her with the Celtic horse-goddess Epona.".  It is named after a former owner, Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, who gave it to the British Museum. She suffers distress as Ertae had imposed it upon her. 4 of 40. Donated to the British Museum  by Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks in 1867, the artifact has aroused considerable interest and debate. The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum. The associated text reads 'ᚻᛖᚱᚠᛖᚷᛏᚪᚦ | +ᛏᛁᛏᚢᛋᛖᚾᛞᚷᛁᚢᚦᛖᚪᛋᚢ' (in Latin transliteration 'herfegtaþ | +titusendgiuþeasu', and if normalised to Late West Saxon 'Hēr feohtaþ Tītus and Iūdēas'): 'Here Titus and the Jews fight'. In this series we take a closer look at particular sites, finds and objects from the world of Archaeology. Amy Vandersall (1975) confirms Schneider's reading of Ægili as relating to Achilles, but would instead have the lid depict the Trojan attack on the Greek camp, with the Greek bowman Teucer as the archer and the person behind the archer (interpreted as a woman by most other authors) as Achilles in his tent. Other authors see a Biblical or Christian message in the lid: Marijane Osborn finds that several details in Psalm 90, "especially as it appears in its Old English translation, ... may be aligned with details in the picture on the lid of the casket: the soul shielded in verse 5 and safely sheltered in the ... sanctuary in verse 9, the spiritual battle for the soul throughout, the flying missiles in verse 6 and an angelic defender in verse 11.  “Ava Gardner! Title: The Franks Casket. It has been suggested that the carved scenes might have been reinterpreted in such as way as to relate to the life of St. Julian, thus making the casket's conversion to a reliquary entirely plausible. The cryptic runes on this panel may be intended to invoke the mysterious writing that appeared on the palace wall during these events. Files. However, "whereas [Becker] sees this as indicating pagan magic, I see it as complementing such magic, as another example of the Franks Casket artist adapting his pagan materials to a Christian evangelical purpose in the mode of interpretatio romana. Below the forge is the headless body of Niðhad's son, whom Wayland has killed, making a goblet from his skull; his head is probably the object held in the tongs in Wayland's hand. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low- relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes . Natural Sound Frank Sinatra is making the journey to his final resting place. Description. Eleanor Clark (1930) added, "Indeed, no one seeing the figure of the horse bending over the tomb of a man could fail to recall the words of the Guthrunarkvitha (II,5): While Clark admits that this is an "extremely obscure legend," she assumes that the scene must be based on a Germanic legend, and can find no other instance in the entire Norse mythology of a horse weeping over a dead body. 7th-8th century. Another Anglo-Saxon bone plaque, existing only in a fragment at the. The right side alliterates first on the H-rune ᚻ hagal (hail storm or misfortune) and then on the S-rune ᛋ sigel (sun, light, life), and illustrates the hero's death and ultimate salvation, according to Becker. Peeters, Leopold, "The Franks Casket: A Judeo-Christian Interpretation. Karl Schneider (1959) identifies the word Ægili on the lid as an Anglo-Saxon form of the name of the Greek hero Achilles. These characters have not been identified, but in juxtaposition with the Romulus and Remus panel, which is representative of Christian salvation and life, this image is suggestive of paganism and death. His wife Ava Gardner said this about his cock. I, p. lxx). As a penance, she was required, as depicted in the scene on the left, " Reading one rune, transcribed by Page and others as r but which is different from the usual r-rune, as a rune for u, Thomas A. Bredehoft has suggested the alternative reading. The Franks Casket was probably intended for use in a royal context. drigiÞ swa hirÆ ertae gisgraf sarden sorga and sefa torna (Here Hos sits on the sorrow-mound; she suffers distress as Ertae had assigned to her a wretched den of sorrows and of torments of the heart)  It was then in the possession of a family in Auzon, a village in Haute Loire. The Titus side stresses the T-rune ᛏ Tiw (the Anglo-Saxon god of victory), documenting that the peak of a warrior-king's life is glory won by victory over his enemies. Now she is his beautiful sigwif, the hero's benevolent, even loving companion, who revives him with a draught from that chalice and takes him to Valhalla. It has been linked to the cult of St. Julian at Brioude, where it may have served as a reliquary. Therefore, Hell tortures Satan in retribution. The left panel shows the legend of Romulus and Remus suckled by the wolf as a symbol of the mother Church offering succor. We see that he defends himself with arrows. Whale's bone); back: her fegtaÞ titus end giuÞeasu hic fugiant hierusalim afitatores (Here Titus and a Jew fight: here its inhabitants flee from Jerusalem); left: romwalus ond reumwalus twoegen gibroÞÆr afoeddÆ hiÆ wylif in romÆcÆstri oÞlÆ unneg (Romulus and Remus, two brothers. It has also been suggested that there may be an episode from the Sigurd legend, an otherwise lost episode from the life of Weyland's brother Egil, a Homeric legend involving Achilles, and perhaps even an allusion to the legendary founding of England by Hengist and Horsa. Language. The empty round area in the centre probably housed the metal boss for a handle. English. View images from this item (6) Information. The Franks Casket: A Tribute to the Founding and Destiny of England.  According to Saxo, Balder's rival Hother meets three women in a dank wood late at night, who provide him with a belt and girdle that will enable him to defeat Balder. On the left, a warrior "has met his fate in guise of a frightening monster... As the outcome, the warrior rests in his grave shown in the middle section. It served as a sewing box until the silver hinges and fittings joining the panels were traded for a silver ring. Three of the vowels are represented consistently by three invented symbols. ", Considering the institutional narratives and object narratives of the Franks Casket, Horsing Around? The Vinland Map... and a little Art History Frontal David. , Runological and numerological considerations. Frank Lucas Funeral NEWARK, NJ - JUNE 11: (EDITORS NOTE: Image depicts death.)  Some are written upside down or back to front. This panel depicts the capture of the city of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman general (later Emperor) Titus. 1850; Jean Baptiste Joseph Barrois (d. 1855), 1850s; Augustus Wollaston Franks, 1858; The British Museum, London, 1867, by gift, Home » Relics & Reliquaries » Ritual and Performance, fisc flodu ahof on fergenberig warÞ gasric grorn ÞÆr he on greot giswom hronÆsban, her fegtaÞ titus end giuÞeasu hic fugiant hierusalim afitatores, romwalus ond reumwalus twoegen gibroÞÆr afoeddÆ hiÆ wylif in romÆcÆstri oÞlÆ unneg, her hos sitiÞ on harmberga, agl. Rōmwalus and Rēomwalus, twēgen gebrōðera: fēdde hīe wylf in Rōmeceastre, ēðle unnēah. Physical Dimensions: Length: 22.90cm; Width: 19.00cm; Height: 10.90cm; Weight: 1887.40g (Overall, incl. Page writes, "What the scenes represent I do not know. Another female figure is shown in the centre; perhaps Wayland's helper, or Beaduhild again. In the upper left quadrant, the Romans, led by Titus in a helm with a sword, attack the central building. This scene was first explained by Sophus Bugge, in Stephens (1866-1901, Vol. a wretched den (?wood) of sorrows and of torments of mind. Becker also presents a numerological analysis of the inscriptions, finding 72 = 3 x 24 signs on the front and left panels, and a total of 288 or 12 x 24 signs on the entire casket. back; The inscription on this panel appears as a mixture of Old English, Latin, runes, and insular scripts. "In order to reach certain values the carver had to choose quite unusual word forms and ways of spelling which have kept generations of scholars busy. 21 in Jane Hawkes and Susan Mills, eds., Osborn, Marijane. , The chest is clearly modelled on Late Antique ivory caskets such as the Brescia Casket; the Veroli Casket in the V&A Museum is a Byzantine interpretation of the style, in revived classical style, from about 1000. K. Malone, The Franks Casket and the Date of Widsith, in A.H. Orrick (ed. This, the Bargello panel, has produced the most divergent readings of both text and images, and no reading of either has achieved general acceptance. Napier (1901, p. 366), quoting Bugge in Stephens (1866-1901, vol. Version des Mythos von Balders Tod." The Franks Casket offers an interesting subject, but I'm not competent to enrich the material. ", The rear panel depicts the Taking of Jerusalem by Titus in the First Jewish-Roman War. The associated text, in the bottom left corner of the panel, reads 'ᛞᚩᛗ' (if normalised to Late West Saxon: 'dōm'): 'judgement'. H. Marquardt, Die Runeninschriften der Britischen Inseln (Bibliographie der Runeninschriften nach Fundorten, Bd. drigiÞ swa hirÆ ertae gisgraf sarden sorga and sefa torna. Webster (1991), from British Museum collection database. Page (1999, 178-9). According to Gabriele Cocco (2009), the lid most likely portrays the story of Elisha and Joas from 2 Kings 13:17, in which the prophet Elisha directs King Joas to shoot an arrow out an open window to symbolise his struggle against the Syrians: "Hence, the Ægili-bowman is King Joas and the figure under the arch is Elisha.